Very often we have to find the cube, i.e. third power of 2 digit numbers. Cubes of very large numbers are rarely used.
Cubes of all the single digits should be memorized. Find below the table of cubes of first ten natural numbers -
13 = 1, 23 = 8, 33 = 27, 43 = 64, 53 = 125,
63 = 216, 73 = 343, 83 = 512, 93 = 729, 103 = 1000
To find the cube of any 2 digit number, we have to take the following steps
First Step: The first thing we have to do is to put down the cube of the tens-digit in a row of 4 figures. The other three numbers in the row of answer should be written in a geometrical ratio in the exact proportion which is there between the digits of the given number.
Second Step: The second step is to put down, under the second and third numbers, just two times of second and third number. Then add up the two rows.
Finding the cube of 12
Or, 123 = ?
First Step: Digit in ten’s place is 1, so we write the cube of 1. And also as the ratio between 1 and 2 is 1:2, the next digits will be double the previous one. So, the first row is
1 2 4 8
Step II: In the above row our 2nd and 3rd digits (from right) are 4 and 2 respectively. So, we write down 8 and 4 below 4 and 2 respectively. Then add up the two rows.
Ex 2: 163 = ?
Explanations: 13 (from 16) = 1. So, 1 is our first digit in the first row. Digits of 16 are in the ratio 1:6, hence our other digits should be 1×6 = 6, 6×6 = 36, 36×6 = 216. In the second row, double the 2nd and 3rd number is written. In the third row, we have to write down only one digit below each column (except under the last column which may have more than one digit). So, after putting down the unit-digit, we carry over the rest to add up with the left-hand column. Here,
i) Write down 6 of 216 and carry over 21.
ii) 36 + 72 + 21 (carried) = 129, write down 9 and carry over 12.
iii) 6 + 12 + 12 (carried) = 30, write down 0 and carry over 3.
iv) 1 + 3 (carried) = 4, write down 4.